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"Natural Flavors" The exact definition of natural flavorings and flavors from Title 21, Section 101, part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations is as follows-
"The term natural flavor or natural flavoring means the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional."
In other words, natural flavors can be pretty much anything approved for use in food. It's basically impossible to tell what is in natural flavors unless the company has specified it on the label. A few of the vegetarian & vegan-oriented companies are doing this now, but the overwhelming majority of food manufacturers do not.
· ACETATE- Retinol. Vitamin A. Palmitate (see Palmitic Acid). An aliphatic alcohol. Can come from fish liver oil (ie. shark liver oil), egg yolks, butter, lemongrass, wheat germ oil, carotene in carrots, etc., synthetics. In cosmetics, creams, perfumes, hair dyes, vitamins, supplements.
· Acetic Acid Esters of Glycerides of Fatty Acids - Fats may be derived from
any number of animal and plant sources. Any food with a simple listing of
"fats" on the ingredient list, without specification, should be
· Albumin/Albumen - derived from bird eggs, animal blood. Albumin. In eggs, milk, muscles, blood and in many vegetable tissues and fluids. In cosmetics, albumen is usually derived from egg whites. May cause allergic reactions. In cakes, cookies, candies, other foods. Egg whites sometimes used in "clearing" wines.
· Alpha Amylase - hog pancreas. Used in flour to breakdown any starches
· Ambergris - whale intestine. Used as a fixative in perfumes and as a flavoring in foods and beverages. (US regulations currently prohibit the use of ingredients derived from marine mammals.)
Alternatives- synthetic and vegetable fixatives.
· AMPD Isoteric Hydrolyzed Animal Protein
· ARACHIDONIC ACID- A liquid unsaturated fatty acid occurring in the liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals. Generally isolated from the liver. In skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes.
· Aspartic Acid. Can be animal or plant (ie. molasses) source. Is a nonessential amino acid. In creams and ointments. Sometimes synthesized for commercial purposes.
· BONE ASH- Bone Earth. The ash of burned bones, used as a fertilizer, in making ceramics and in cleaning and polishing compounds.
· BONEBLACK- Bone Charcoal. A black pigment containing about 10% charcoal made by roasting bones in an airtight container. Used in aquarium filters and in refining cane sugar. In eye shadows, polishes.
· BONE CHARCOAL- See Boneblack
· BONE EARTH- See Bone Ash
· BONE MEAL- Animal Bones
· Calcium 5'-Ribonucleotides - is derived from meat extract and dried sardines; used as a flavor intensifier.
· Calcium Pantothenate - Calcium pantothenate is often dervied from animal liver - this may include non-kosher animals.
· CALCIFEROOL- Vitamin D. Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2, Ergosterol, provitarnin D2, Calciferool). Vitamin D3. Vitamin D can come from fish-liver oil, eggs, milk, butter. Vitamin D2 is made by irradiating ergosterol, a provitamin from plants or yeast. Vitamin D3 is from fish-liver oil. In creams, lotions, other cosmetics, vitamins. Alternatives- sunshine, plant sources, synthetics.
· CALCIUM CARBONATE- Calcite. Aragonite. A white or colorless powder, crystalline compund, found mainly in limestone, marble and chalk, bones, teeth, shells and plant ash.
· CALCIUM HYDROXIDE- Slaked lime, a white crystalline compound prepared by the action of water on Calcium Oxide, used in making alkalies, bleaching powder, etc.
· CALCIUM OXIDE- a white soft, caustic solid, prepared by heating Calcium Carbonate; lime- used in making mortar and plaster, and in ceramics.
· CALCIUM PHOSPHATE- Any number of phosphates of calcium found in bones, teeth, and other animal tissues and used in medicine and in the manufacture of enamels, glass, cleaning agents, etc.
· Calcium Stearate - This powdery substance is produced from fatty acids (usually animal tallow) and is used as an anti caking agent in garlic and onion salt and numerous spice powders and blends.
· Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate - See Stearic Acid
· Carbamide - Urea, urine
· CARBAMIDE- Urea. Imidazolidinyl Urea. Uric Acid. Found in urine and other body fluids. Also produced synthetically In deodorants, ammoniated dentifrices, mouthwashes, hair colorings, hand creams, lotions, shampoos, etc. Used to "brown" baked goods such as pretzels.
· Carmine (Cocineal) (E120) - Carmine is a red-pink pigment that is derived from an insect (coccus cacti). It is often found in red-apple sauce, strawberry flavored drinks, fruit cocktail, meats, spices, candies and pastries.
· Carminic Acid - Natural Red No. 4 (E120)
· CASTOR- Castoreum. From muskrat and beaver genitals. Used in perfumes and incense. Castor oil comes from the castor bean and is used in many cosmetics. Alternatives- synthetics, plant sources.
Castoreum - is a “natural flavoring” (which is also used in perfumes) derived from the castor sac scent glands of beavers.
It is added to foods and drinks to add a vanilla flavoring.
· CATGUT- Tough cord or thread made from the intestines of sheep, horses, etc. Used for surgical sutures and for stringing tennis rackets and musical instruments, etc.
· CETYL ALCOHOL- Cetyl Lactate. Cetyl Myristate. Cetyl Palmitate. Ceteth-1, 02,
etc. Wax found in spermaceti from sperm whales or dolphin. Used in lipsticks,
mascaras, nail polish removers, hand lotions, cream, rouges and many other
cosmetics, shampoos, hair lacquers and other hair products, deodorants,
antiperspirants (US regulations currently prohibit the use of ingredients
derived from marine mammals.)
· Cholecalciferol - Known as vitamin D3, this compound, derived from animal tissues.
· CHOLESTERIN- Cholesterol. A steroid alcohol, especially in all animal fats and oils, nerve tissue, egg yolk and blood. Can be derived from lanolin . In cosmetics, eye creams, shampoos, etc.
· CHOLESTEROL- See Cholesterin.
· CHOLINE BITARTATE- Lecithin. In all living organisms. Frequently obtained for commercial purposes from eggs and soybeans (when stated soy lecithin). Also from nerve tissue, blood, milk, corn. Choline bitartrate, the basic constituent of lecithin, is in many animal and plant tissues or prepared synthetically. Lecithin can be in eye creams, lipsticks, liquid powders, hand creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, other cosmetics, candies, other foods and medicines.
· Chondroitin- Made from animal cartilage, such as tracheas or shark cartilage.
· CIVET. Obtained from the civet, a small mammal. Used in perfumes as a fixative.
· COD LIVER OIL- Fish Liver Oil. Fish Livers. Used in Lubricating creams and lotions, vitamins and supplements. In milk fortified with Vitamin D.
· COLLAGEN- A fibrous protein in vertebrates. Usually derived from animal tissue.
· Colorose - See sugar
· Disodium Phosphats - See Guanosine
· Disodium Guanylate - See Guanosine
· DNA/RNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Ribonucleic Acid. Polypeptides. Obtained from slaughterhouse wastes. Used in many protein shampoos and cosmetics.
· DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID- See DNA/RNA.
· DUODENUM SUBSTANCES- From the digestive tracts of cattle and swine. In some vitamins and medicines.
· E120- See Carmine.
· Eicosapentaenoic Acid. EPA is derived from fish. These fish may be
· ESTRADIOL- Estrone. Estrogen. From cow ovaries and pregnant mares' urine. Considered a drug.
· Fats/Fatty Acids - Fats may be derived from any number of animal and plant sources. Any food with a simple listing of "fats" on the ingredient list, without specification, should be considered non-kosher.
· Ferrous Lactate - Non-kosher animals may be used to obtain Ferrous Lactate.
· Folic Acid - Non-kosher animals may be used to obtain Folic Acid.
· Formic Acid - Non-kosher animals may be used to obtain Folic Acid.
· Gelatin/Gel - This glutinous material is obtained from beef, pork and calf and is usually non Kosher. Because of its congealing qualities it is used in a wide range of foods so you should therefore be careful to check the ingredients. Some Rabbinic authorities will provide certification to products that contain gelatin derived from non-kosher animals on the grounds that the gelatin was first dried. They contend that gelatin in this state becomes "wood."
· Glucose Glutamate - Glucose glutamate is used as a humectant in hand creams and lotions. It may be obtained from animal blood.
· Glucosamine- Made from the shells of crabs, lobster, and shrimp.
· GLYCERIN- Glycerine. Glycerol. Polyglycerol. Polytethylene Glycol (PEG). A byproduct of soap manufacture (normally used animal fat). In cosmetics, foods, mouthwashes, toothpastes, soaps, ointments, medicines, lubricants, transmission and brake fluids, plastics.
· GLYCERINE- See Glycerin,
· HIDE GLUE- Same as gelatin but of a cruder, more impure form.
· Hydroxyoctacosanyl Hydrostearate - see Stearic Acid.
· Hydroxyphenyl Glycinamide - see Glycine.
· INSULIN- From the pancreas of hogs and oxen. Used by millions of diabetics daily. Alternatives- synthetics, human insulin grown in a lab, diet when possible.
· ISINGLASS- A form of gelatin prepared from the internal membranes of fish bladders. In foods and sometimes used in "clearing" wines and beers.
Alternatives- bentonite clay, "Japanese isinglass". Isinglass is also a mineral, mica, used in cosmetics.
· Inversol - See Sugar
· Isinglass - is a substance produced from dried fish bladders and it’s used to clarify
alcoholic beverages like beer and wine. Isinglass is not listed on the label
because the FDA has determined it is not a health issue, so it is not listed as
· KERATIN- From the ground-up horns, hoofs, feathers, quills and hair of various creatures. In hair rinses, shampoos, permanent wave solutions.
· Lactic Acid Esters of Glycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· Lactoflavin - see B Vitamins.
· Lactoglycerides - May be derived from non-kosher animal sources.
· Lactylated fatty acid esters of gylcerol and propane-1,2-diol - May be derived from non-kosher animal sources.
· Lactylic Stearate - see Stearic Acid.
· Lactylated Glycerides - May be derived from non-kosher animal sources.
· LARD- Fat from hog abdomens. In shaving creams, soaps, cosmetics, baked goods and other foods.
Lanolin - is secreted by the sebaceous glands of sheep. Lanolin is some times used
as “gum base” in chewing gum. Most companies now use a synthetic lanolin to serve the same
purpose but you can never be sure.
· Magneseum Salt of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
Magnesium Stearate - This powdery substance is produced from fatty acids (usually animal tallow) and is used as an anti caking agent in garlic and onion salt and numerous spice powders and blends.
· Mesoinositol Hexaphosphate - Derived from non-kosher animal sources. Not Kosher.
· Methionine - see Amino Acids.
· Methyl Ester of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· Mixed Acetic and Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· Modified Starch - starch altered chemically; among the chemicals that may be used to alter the starch is 1-octenyl succinic anhydride (see succinic acid).
· Molasses - Molasses is a by product of the sugar refining process. The sugar refining process involves the use of charred animal bones (as a filtration medium), animal fats (as defoamers), and sometimes animal blood (in the bleaching process). Molasses is genereally non-kosher.
· Mono and Diacetyltartaric Acid Esters of Glycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· Mono and Diglycerides - Mono and Diglycerides may be derived from animal or vegetable sources. Only the vegetarian forms are kosher. Mono and Diglycerides do not need to be mentioned on the ingredient labels of processed foods. Pepper Cream is a common food additive that requires the presence of di-glycerides.
· Monopotassium Phosphate - Monosodium phosphate, an emulsifier, may be dervied from non-kosher animal sources.
· Musk - dried secretions from the perianal glandular sac of the Central Asian Musk Deer; as musk ambrette is used in fruit, cherry, maple, mint, nut, black walnut, pecan, spice, and vanilla flavorings for beverages, ice creams, ices, candy, baked goods, gelatin desserts, pudding, and chewing gum; as musk tonquin is used in fruit, maple, and molasses flavorings for beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods, and syrups; as musk ketone is used in chewing gum and candy.
· Myrisitic Acid - This fatty acid may be derived from non-kosher animal sources.
· NATURAL FLAVOR- Natural Flavoring. Natural Source. Can mean animal, vegetable or mineral source. Most often in the health food industry, it means an animal source, especially in cosmetics (ie. animal elastin, animal glands, fat, protein, oil). Be wary of this term. Find out exact source.
· NATURAL SOURCE- See Natural Flavor.
· Niacin - see B Vitamins.
· Nulomoline - See Sugar
· Oleic Acid - Oleic acid may be derived from animal or vegetable sources. Only vegetarian forms should be considered kosher.
· OLEAN- Olestra A man-made fat substitude that contains fatty acids.
· Oxysterins Polysorbates - See Stearic Acid
· Palmitic Acid (Palmitate) - see Stearic Acid.
· Palmitoyl Hydrolyzed Milk Protein - see Stearic Acid.
· d-Pantothenamide - made synthetically from royal jelly of the queen bee, "nutritional" brewer's yeast, and molasses (see sugar).
· Pepsin - Pepsin is be obtained most often from hog stomachs.
· Peptones - Peptones may be dervied from non-kosher animal sources.
· Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· Polyglycerol Esters of Dimerized Fatty Acids of Soy Bean Oil - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· Polyglycerol Esters of Polycondesnsed Fatty Acids of Castor Oil - see
· Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate - May be derived from non-kosher animal sources.
· Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate - May be dervied from non-kosher animal sources.
· Polyoxyl (40) stearate - see Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate.
· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, polysorbate 20, tween 20 may be derived from animals.
· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate, polysorbate 80, tween 80 may be derived from animals.
· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate, polysorbate 40, tween 40 may be derived from animals.
· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, tween 60 may be derived from animals.
· Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate, polysorbate 65, tween 65 may be derived from animals.
· Potassium Lactate - Potassium Lactate may be derived from non-kosher animal sources.
· Potassium Salt of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· PRISTANE- Obtained from the liver oil of sharks and from whale ambergris. (US regulations currently prohibit the use of ingredients derived from marine mammals.)
· Propane-1,2-diol Esters of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· Propyl Gallate - Propyl gallate, a preservative, is produced by insects.
· Propylene Glycos Esters of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· QUATERNIUM 27- Tallow. Stearamide. Stearate. Stearic Acid. Stearin. Fat from cows, sheep, most often refers to a fatty substance taken from the stomachs of pigs.
· Resinous glaze - Lac is the generic name for the natural resin gathered by the lac beetle that thrives on various host trees and shrubs in India, Burma, Indochina, and Siam. The lac beetle converts the sap of the trees into resin which is gathered, crushed, washed, and dried and used in food glaze. This process is very similar to a bee's production of honey. The process is called transferred nectar. It is definately non-kosher; however certain Rabbinic authorities will permit its inclusion in food because they consider it non-edible, and therefore, not food.
· Rennet (Rennin) - is an enzyme used in the cheese making process to coagulate milk proteins into curds. Rennet is derived from the fourth stomach of young, unweaned calves (who have been killed for veal consumption). Rennet can be cultivated from non-animal sources as well. Vegetable rennet is made from plants, Microbial rennet is made from molds, and genetically-modified rennet is produced in a lab. If your cheese ingredients’ label just reads rennet, there’s no way to know the origin of the ingredient. Look for labels that state that the product is vegetarian or kosher.
· Riboflavin - see B Vitamins.
· Riboflavin 5'-phosphate - see B Vitamins.
· SABLE BRUSHES- From the fur of sables (weasel-like mammals). Used to make cosmetic brushes.
· SEA TURTLE OIL- Turtle Oil. From the muscles and genitals of giant sea turtles. In soaps, skin creams, nail creams, other cosmetics.
· Serum Albumin - Serum albumin is derived from blood.
· Shellac - is used to make the shiny coating on jelly beans and to give fresh fruits and vegetables a glossy finish. Shellacis made from the excretions of the Kerria lacca insect that are native to Thailand. The FDA does require produce packers to disclose whether any coating used is animal or vegetable derived. You will only find it on the placard or on the box of produce, not on the fruit or vegetable itself.
· SILK POWDER- Obtained from the secretion of the silkworm. Used as a coloring agent in face powders, soaps, etc.
· Span - See Stearic Acid
· SQUALANE- Squalene. Obtained from shark liver oil. Lubricant and perfume fixative.
· Thermally Oxidized Soya Bean Oil Interacted with Mono- and Di-glycerides of Fatty Acids - see Fats/Fatty Acids.
· Tween - See Stearic Acid
· URIC ACID- Carbamide. The end product of urine breakdown
· Vanilla - Vanilla is often combined with animal glycerine. See Glycerine.
· Vitamins - preparations in tablet or capsule form often contain stearates, gelatin binders and coatings of non kosher origin. In other preparations, vitamins from natural sources, such as non kosher liver, bone meal and fish oils are used. Glycerin is used extensively as a base in liquid vitamin preparations.
· Vitamin B - Any B Vitamin may be derived from non-kosher animals. Only vegetarian forms are kosher.
· Vitamins D3 - derived from irradiated skin, which he called D3.